Хай – тек в архитектуре



Архитектурный стиль хай-тек (с английского «высокие технологии») возник в конце 60-х – начале 70-х годов ХХ века. Он возник под влиянием популярных тогда идей научной фантастики и поп-арта. Хай – тек в архитектуре стал символом будущего человечества.

Особое влияние идей стиля хай-тек заметно в проектах английских архитекторов Нормана Фостера, Николаса Гримшоу, Ричарда Роджерса, Джеймса Стирлинга и итальянского – Ренцо Пиано. Первым зданием, в проектировании и постройке которого воплотились идеи хай-тека, большинство экспертов считают здание Центра Помпиду. Оно было построен в Париже в 1977 году Ричардом Роджерсом.

Так же довольно ярким воплощением стиля являются оригинальные здания в Лондоне, созданные Норманом Фостером.

Стиль хай- тек в архитектуре: основные признаки

Основными признаками стиля хай-тек в архитектуре, является максимальная функциональность всех элементов здания, сведенное к минимуму использование декоративных элементов и украшений. В проекты архитектуры активно внедряются современные, прогрессивные технологии и материалы.

Акцентировано выставляются напоказ различные архитектурные и технические формы. Они представлены в виде контрастно окрашенных инженерных элементов, труб, воздуховодов и металлических конструкций. При этом свет гармонично сочетается с объемом и распределением пространства. Конструкция зданий воплощает простоту и строгость.

Это преимущественно прямые линии, упрощенные геометрические формы, декорирование – не броское, спокойное. Преобладают однотонные приглушенные цветовые гаммы. И обязательно – наличие многоярусных галерей из стекла и металла, соединяющих в единый комплекс отдельные функциональные части здания.

Использование преимущественно поверхностей из металла и стекла – один из главных отличительных признаков хай-тека. Именно эти материалы символизируют собой будущее.

Начиная с 80-х годов, хай-тек стал признаком престижности. Здания, возведенные в этом стиле, очень дорогие. Крупные банки, солидные фирмы и деловые центры в больших городах Западной Европы, Восточной Азии, Северной Америки и Австралии, давно уже обитают в подобных архитектурных произведениях.

Жилые дома в стиле хай-тек изобилуют панорамными окнами. Помещения состоят из отдельных блоков. Они соединяются переходами и коридорами, которые архитекторы часто оставляют открытыми. Тонко проработанные внешние элементы несущих конструкций и коммуникаций формируют пространство и декорируют его. В целом, дом становится похож на складской ангар или производственное здание.

Современность и хай – тек

Все чаще, начиная с 90-х годов, хай-тек пытается воссоединиться с природой, не противоречить ей, найти разумный компромисс. Это приводит к тому, что хай-тек постепенно переходит в био -тек и эко-тек.



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