Сад в японском стиле

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yaponskiy-sadСад в японском стиле – это особенный сад. Он живет по своим законам и правилам. В нем каждый элемент имеет особое значение, свое место в общей композиции. Это стиль природного сада, где царит естественная гармония и умиротворенность.

Стиль зародился еще в начале прошлого тысячелетия. Одухотворенная природа в представлении японца это не застывшая картинка, а непрерывная смена видов и событий. Непременными атрибутами японского сада являются камни и вода. Это вполне объяснимо: владельцы садов стремились воспроизвести в своих владениях ландшафты своего края с его горными хребтами и водными потоками.

Особое очарование такому саду придадут кустарники, аккуратно подстриженные, площадки, засыпанные песком и огромные валуны, словно горные вершины среди прекрасных озер.

В японском стиле существует несколько направлений. Каждый из них имеет свою концепцию и особый смысл: сад Цубо, сад камней, сад деревьев, сад воды, чайный сад.

Сад для японца – это не грядки и цветники. Это место уединения и медитации. И поэтому все в нем, включая даже незначительные детали, наполнены внутренним философским и религиозным значением и смыслом.

Камни в японском стиле

Примечательно то, что японские сады могут быть и вовсе без растений, но никогда не бывают без камней. В древних трактатах камень описывается как высшее творение природы. Через него можно передать всю информацию об окружающем мире. Для восточного мировоззрения присуще проникновение в саму суть природы вещей через особое понимание красоты. Прелесть японского сада должна познаваться в процессе длительной медитации.

Благодаря этой теории в Японии стали создаваться символические и абстрактные сады. Это не идет в разрез с пониманием того, что японский сад должен воспроизводит существующие, реальные пейзажи. Находясь в символическом саду, вы можете сами представить, где находитесь благодаря своему воображению и в зависимости от времени года, погоды и состояния души.

Sad-kamney

Особое отношение в японском саду и к мелкому гравию. С его помощью можно создавать моря, реки и озера. На поверхности гравия граблями наносится рисунок морской ряби, а большие камни будут островами. При расстановке камней необходимо придерживаться определенных правил. Самый большой камень ставится в центральной части гравийной площадки. Две композиции из других камней могут быть чуть поодаль от центра. Это острова – журавля и черепахи.

Гравийные моря и озера будут очень хорошо смотреться на фоне зеленого газона. Нужно учитывать и то обстоятельство, что при обустройстве японского сада необходимо избегать симметричного расположения деталей, камней или кустарников. Здесь все должно выглядеть так, словно к ландшафту не прикасалась рука человека. Все настолько естественно.

Вода в японском стиле

Японский сад нередко наполняется хрустальным журчанием прохладной воды. Обыграть это можно очень красиво. Здесь уместны каменные чаши, наполненные водой, ручей с плавными изгибами или водоем с цветущими кувшинками. В глубине водной глади можно увидеть лениво проплывающих рыбок.

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Ручеек, болотце или озеро украсит круто изогнутый горбатый мостик, каменный иди деревянный. Идиллию такому месту придадут фигурка Будды и восточный каменный фонарь. Такие места являются местом уединения, они надежно укрыты от посторонних взглядов.

Растения для японского сада

Что посадить в японском саду? Вопрос непростой. Растений может быть много или нет, а может и не быть совсем. Все будет зависеть от замысла, идеи и вдохновения.

Рододендроны, пионы, азалия, ирисы – традиционные спутники японского стиля. Декоративная слива и клен веерный внесут в композицию сада яркие цвета, изменчивость и перемены. Сосна в Японии это символ гармонии и долговечности. Аккуратно подстриженные самшиты и бересклеты создадут уютные уголки. Папоротники, мох и тростник сделают акцент на зеленый цвет.

Фигурное мощение из камней

В таком саду хорошо смотрится фигурное мощение. Сделать ее несложно.

  • С помощью светлого песка, шпагата или штыковой лопаты намечаем контуры площадки.
  • После этого подготавливаем место для укладки камней. Для этого снимается слой земли на 20-30 см.
  • Подготавливаем камни: их промываем для того, чтобы легче подбирать по цвету и фактуре. Камни должны быть небольшого размера.
  • Камни укладываются таким образом, чтобы кромки совпадали по размеру, добиваясь небольших зазоров между камнями. Созданная композиция из камней должна смотреться целостной, как единый массив.

Как создать сад в японском стиле. Подведем итоги

Чтобы до конца прочувствовать философию и суть японского сада нужно родиться в Японии. Но не стоит унывать, создать сад в японском стиле под силу каждому, кто захочет понять основные его принципы. Японские сады создаются для неторопливого созерцания естественного пейзажа и красоты природы во всех ее проявлениях.

Для его создания сада в японском стиле понадобится большое количество камней и небольшое количество растений возле них, светлый песок или мелкие камушки. Главным компонентом композиции японского сада, все – таки, является камень. Не обязательно иметь большую площадь для создания сада в восточном стиле. В Японии очень мало плодородной земли и поэтому они используют любые участки для устройства садов удивительной красоты, покоя и гармонии. Сад – это целая вселенная.

Массивные валуны придадут саду экзотический и интригующий вид. В японском саду культивируется зеленый цвет, он и является основным. Самым ярким событием в таком саду может стать яркий багрянец осеннего клена. Поэтому растения в саду могут быть самые разные, но зеленый цвет должен преобладать. В нем так же очень хорошо будут смотреться хвойные растения.

Полное отсутствие растений в таком саду тоже уместно и такое решение может принять не каждый. Такая концепция подходит для неординарной личности его владельца.

Создание японского сада – задача явно не из легких.  Перед подбором растений и завозом камней, необходимо тщательно разработать план будущей композиции сада и продумать все этапы работы.

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